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McDonald & Sanders 2002, Appendix D-2, lists the following New Testament books according to Jerome, (c. 394), from his Epistle 53: "Lord's Four": Matt, Mark, Luke, John, Paul's Epistles (14), 1–2 Peter, 1–3 John, Jude, James, Acts, Rev. New Testament Studies 62.3 (2016): 461-476. But they say that he ventured to paraphrase certain words of the apostle [Paul], in order to improve their style.". He did propose removing them from the canon,[139][140] echoing the consensus of several Catholics such as Cardinal Cajetan and Erasmus, and partially because they were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola gratia and sola fide, but this was not generally accepted among his followers. [15] The word “canon” has a semitic origin meaning “reed” (as in a woody plant growing wetlands). This list, given below, was purportedly endorsed by Pope Damasus I: [A list of books of the Old Testament ...], and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Jude, and the Apocalypse of John. The last book to be accepted universally was the Book of Revelation, though with time all the Eastern Church also agreed. Hermas taught that Jesus was not himself a divine being, but a virtuous man who was subsequently filled with the Holy Spirit and adopted as the Son[77][78] (a doctrine called adoptionism). This is evidence that, perhaps as early as 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the 27-book NT, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. He knows several of Paul's epistles, and values them highly for their content; the same can be said of the Epistle to the Hebrews, with which he is well acquainted. It also includes Psalm 151 and Psalm 152–155 and 2 Baruch. This flesh, therefore, in which the Holy Spirit dwelt, was subject unto the Spirit, walking honorably in holiness and purity, without in any way defiling the Spirit. [97][98] Gaius or Caius, presbyter of Rome (early 3rd century), was apparently associated with this movement.[99]. It was his attempt that set in motion the long process in the church that ended with the New Testament we have today. Date Event; AD 51-125: The New Testament books are written. Thus, by the 5th century, both the Western and Eastern churches had come into agreement on the matter of the New Testament canon. ", In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History 6.38 says the Elchasai "made use of texts from every part of the Old Testament and the Gospels; it rejects the Apostle (Paul) entirely"; 4.29.5 says Tatian the Assyrian rejected Paul's Letters and Acts of the Apostles; 6.25 says Origen accepted 22 canonical books of the Hebrews plus Maccabees plus the four Gospels, one epistle of Peter "perhaps also a second, but this is doubtful," the apocalypse of John, by John an "epistle of very few lines; perhaps also a second and third", and the epistles of Paul who "did not so much as write to all the churches that he taught; and even to those to which he wrote he sent but a few lines. Chronology of the Apostolic Age and the Development of the New Testament Canon. Acts 21:21 records a rumor that Paul aimed to subvert the Old Testament (against this rumor see Romans 3:8, 3:31). (5th edition; Leicester: Intervarsity Press, 1959). These comprised ten of the Pauline epistles (without the Pastorals) and a gospel similar to that of Luke. The beginning of the Muratorian Canon is lost; the fragment that has survived, starts by naming Luke the third gospel and John the fourth. Indeed, at this time it may be said that the new canon was known under the designation "The Gospel and the Apostles" in contradistinction to the old as "the Law and the Prophets." The Cheltenham List,[114][115] c. 365–90, is a Latin list discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) in a 10th-century manuscript (chiefly patristic) belonging to the library of Thomas Phillips at Cheltenham, England. [March 10, 2016] Congratulations to Dr. Taffey Hall. The Syriac Doctrine of Addai (c. 400) claims to record the oldest traditions of the Syriac Christianity, and among these is the establishment of a canon: members of the church are to read only the Gospel (meaning the Diatessaron of Tatian), the Epistles of Paul (which are said to have been sent by Peter, from Rome), and the Book of Acts (which is said to have been sent by John the son of Zebedee, from Ephesus), and nothing else. As the Confession goes on to state, "ancient custom, or rather the Catholic Church, which has delivered to us as genuine the Sacred Gospels and the other Books of Scripture, has undoubtedly delivered these [deuterocanonical books] also as parts of Scripture.... And if, perhaps, it seems that not always have all of these been considered on the same level as the others, yet nevertheless these also have been counted and reckoned with the rest of Scripture, both by Synods and by many of the most ancient and eminent Theologians of the Catholic Church. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Synod of Carthage (397) and Council of Carthage (419). All Dates are Approximate. Documenta Ecdesiastica Sacrum Scripturam Spectantia, Romae, apud Librarian! Metzger 1987 draws the following conclusion about Clement: Clement... makes occasional reference to certain words of Jesus; though they are authoritative for him, he does not appear to enquire how their authenticity is ensured. Within the New Testament itself, there is a reference to at least some of the works of Paul as Scripture. [71] The success of Tatian's Diatessaron in about the same time period is "...a powerful indication that the fourfold Gospel contemporaneously sponsored by Irenaeus was not broadly, let alone universally, recognized. Appendix: Did Paul Start the NT Canon? Other scholars propose that it was Melito of Sardis who originally coined the phrase Old Testament,[60] which is associated with Supersessionism. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. ... the Bishop of Alexandria, identifies the 27 books of the New Testament which are today recognized as the canon of scripture. In 367 the main topic of the letter was the content  of Christian scripture, Old and New Testaments. Likewise, Damasus's commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible, c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West. The New Testament is a collection of 27 documents from at least ten writers (following the traditional view) and possibly as many as sixteen (following the academic approach). 382 AD: Christian scholars assert that, when these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church."[30][35][36]. [125] According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, by the turn of the 5th century, the Western Church under Pope Innocent I recognized a biblical canon including the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, which was previously established at a number of regional Synods, namely the Council of Rome (382), the Synod of Hippo (393), and two Councils of Carthage (397 and 419). [124], The first council that accepted the present canon of the books of the New Testament may have been the Synod of Hippo in North Africa (393). Oxford. The canon catalogue gives all 27 books of the Catholic New Testament. It is difficult to determine the date of composition; commentaries and reference books have placed 2 Peter in almost every decade from AD 60 to 160.[50]. 367      Festal Letter 39 (Easter Letter 39) of Athanasius. Some, such as 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Jude, were widely rejected but eventually came to be included in the New Testament. [72] He mentions the four gospels, Acts, the Pauline epistles with the exception of Hebrews and Philemon, as well as the first epistle of Peter, and the first and second epistles of John, and the book of Revelation. [93][94][95] This is an excerpt from Metzger's translation:[96]. The third list included The Revelation (and it was on the first list, too!) [134][135], The Encyclopedia of Theology says that the 27 books which make up the New Testament canon of Scripture are not based on a Scriptural list that authenticates them to be inspired, thus their legitimacy is considered impossible to be distinguished with certainty without appealing to another infallible source, such as the Magisterium of the Catholic Church which first assembled and authenticated this list at the Council of Rome. The New Testament in its canonical aspect has little history between the first years of the fifth and the early part of the sixteenth century. [25], There were those who rejected the Gospel of John (and possibly also Revelation and the Epistles of John) as either not apostolic or as written by the Gnostic Cerinthus or as not compatible with the Synoptic Gospels. It has been established that Herod died in 4 B.C., so Jesus must have been born before. The Apocalypse of John, also called Revelation, is counted as both accepted (Kirsopp. After the Council of Ephesus, the Church of the East became separated, and retained this canon of only 22-books (the Peshitta) up to the present day. [105] Pamphili c. 330, 3.3.5 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (help) adds further detail on Paul: "Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed. There may have also been a dispute over the doctrine of the Paraclete. It has recently been suggested that Origen (c. 184 – c. 253) has an identical or nearly identical canon to that of Athanasius in 367. Certain books—including the four Gospels, the Pauline Epistles, the Acts of the Apostles, 1 Peter, and 1 John—were universally accepted, with almost no one doubting their Scriptural status. The New Testament - A Brief Overview 27 Books and 9 Authors In addition, John also sounds the trumpet through his epistles, and Luke, as he describes the Acts of the Apostles. The Catholic Church provided a conciliar definition of its Biblical canon in 382 at the (local) Council of Rome (based upon the Decretum Gelasianum, of uncertain authorship)[2][3] as well as at the Council of Trent of 1545, reaffirming the Canons of Florence of 1442 and North African Councils (Hippo and Carthage) of 393–419. These then belong among the accepted writings [Homologoumena]. F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1988), 117-269. He does think that the letter to the Corinthians, known now as 1 Clement, was of great worth but does not seem to believe that Clement of Rome was the one author (Book 3, Chapter 3, Verse 3) and seems to have the same lower status as Polycarp's Epistle (Book 3, Chapter 3, Verse 3). A second council was held at the Synod of Hippo (393) reaffirming the previous council list. 315 AD: Athenasius, the Bishop of Alexandria, identifies the 27 books of the New Testament which are today recognized as the canon of scripture. The First Vatican Council on April 24, 1870, approved the additions to Mark (v. 16:9–20), Luke (22:19b–20, 43–44), and John (7:53–8:11), which are not present in early manuscripts but are contained in the Vulgate edition. University of America Press, 2002) 74–5, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (, Kalin, Everett R. "The New Testament Canon of Eusebius". He developed three criteria (click and scroll down to 3.25.6) that seemed to come into play for accepting pieces of literature: (1) apostolicity—did the literature come from the pen or witness of an apostle? It is said that no two scripture scholars will agree on one apostolic chronology. The "broader" Ethiopian New Testament canon includes four books of "Sinodos" (church practices), two "Books of Covenant", "Ethiopic Clement", and "Ethiopic Didascalia" (Apostolic Church-Ordinances). Saved by Joe Aboumoussa. 2 A work that deals more with this question of order than most do is William R. Farmer with Denis M. Farkasfalvy, The Formation of the New Testament Canon (New York: Paulist, 1983). The annotated timeline below is not exhaustive, but it does indicate the major dates or periods that prompted the ecclesiastical consensus to accept these 27 pieces of literature as “canon.”. The Pauline epistles were circulating, perhaps in collected forms, by the end of the 1st century AD. 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The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance. It contains twenty-two works now in the New Testament, but is also includes works that the church later abandoned as authoritative. [16] In 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse. When then it had lived honorably in chastity, and had labored with the Spirit, and had cooperated with it in everything, behaving itself boldly and bravely, he chose it as a partner with the Holy Spirit; for the career of this flesh pleased [the Lord], seeing that, as possessing the Holy Spirit, it was not defiled upon the earth. [110][111], In his Easter letter of 367,[112] Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of exactly the same books as what would become the 27-book NT canon,[27] and he used the word "canonized" (kanonizomena) in regard to them.[113]. [21][62][63] Scholars are divided on whether there is any evidence that Justin included the Gospel of John among the "memoirs of the apostles", or whether, on the contrary, he based his doctrine of the Logos on it. Though a list was clearly necessary to fulfill Constantine's commission in 331 of fifty copies of the Bible for the Church at Constantinople, no concrete evidence exists to indicate that it was considered to be a formal canon. Translation from B. J. Bruce, Origen: Homilies on Joshua (FOC 105; Washington: Catholic History of the Bible: The Making of the New Testament Canon. Likewise, the length of a ruler’s arm from elbow to the end of the middle finger was marked on a stick as a “cubit” (Latin for “elbow”). Likewise, the Muratorian fragment is evidence that perhaps as early as 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to the twenty-seven book NT canon, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. [6] By the early 3rd century Origen of Alexandria may have been using the same 27 books as in the modern New Testament, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Revelation[7] (see also Antilegomena). [29] These councils were convened under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed. Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy", "How the Ante-Nicene Church Fathers Preserved the Eyewitness Gospel Accounts", Book 3, chapter XXV: The Divine Scriptures that are accepted and those that are not, "The "Apostolic Canons" (about A.D. 380)", "The Canon of Amphilochius of Iconium (after 394 CE)", "Letter of Innocent I on the Canon of Scripture", "The Longer Catechism of The Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church • Pravoslavieto.com", "Luther's Treatment of the 'Disputed Books' of the New Testament", "Gedruckte Ausgaben der Lutherbibel von 1545", Under Orders: The Autobiography of William Laurence Sullivan, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon&oldid=993047770, Development of the Christian biblical canon, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles that may contain original research from January 2016, All articles that may contain original research, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Pamphili c. 330, 4.29.6 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (help) mentions the Diatessaron: "But their original founder, Tatian, formed a certain combination and collection of the Gospels, I know not how, to which he gave the title Diatessaron, and which is still in the hands of some. and new testament timeline begins with jesus, he and phrygia. [34] In c. 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse. ", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 14:47. For the Orthodox, the recognition of these writings as authoritative was formalized in the Second Council of Trullan of 692. ISBN: 0198269544: Schneemelcher, Wilhelm, ed. No one else we know of would be a good candidate, certainly not the essentially fictive Luke, Timothy, and Onesimus. The Syriac Orthodox Church uses this text as well (known in the West Syriac dialect as the Peshitto), but with the addition of the other books normally present in the New Testament canon. 1987. As the early church was adjusting to the passing of the apostles and the Church Fathers, so-called, the mid-to-late second century was a hotbed for a wide array of heterodox groups. The expansion phase of the New Testament canon thus could have begun in response to Marcion's proposed limited canon. Against this rumor see Romans 3:8, 3:31 ) documenta Ecdesiastica Sacrum Scripturam Spectantia,,. The gospels, they reveal the life, ministry, and 3 John which is similar the. These are the earliest known example of a defined set of four gospels new testament canon timeline the Tetramorph,..., though with time all the Eastern Church also agreed of these matters ) endurance utility—had! A “ back-to-front ” summary of the 1st century AD: Completion of Original. 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[ 108 ] canon was completed late in the Second Council was held at Synod! S analysis of why some works were embraced and others not as authoritative made to dwell in flesh he. Book to be rejected “ canon ” was the content of Christian,! 331, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the Formation of Bible! The end of the New Testament there are two distinct but related fields of inquiry one of canon. Finalized canon. Christian Orthodoxy books to a defined list of the New Testament we have today “ reed (... Latin for Testament ] Whether his canon was completed late in the German-language Luther Bible to this.. Catholicism considers the Magisterium, i.e Manuscripts which make up the writings of the Bible in we... Is one new testament canon timeline the New Testament timeline begins with Jesus, he claimed the theology the... Epistles, and other promotional material each Easter of Lyon ( in Gaul ) against... 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